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Auction 424  -  15.05.2019 09:00
Ancient - Medieval - modern Coins

# 441–460 of 2790

ISLAMIC COINS | Hafsids | misc

Lot 441
Abû Zakaryâ Yahyâ ibn 'Abd al-Wâhid, 627-647 H/1230-1249 AD, second phase with reference the Almohad caliphate, 634-640. Dinar no date and no indication of the mint. Obv. bismillâhi r-rahmâni r-rahîm / lâ ilâha illâ / muhammad rasûlu llâh / al-mahdî imâmu l-umma, marginal segments: al-amîru l-ajall abû - zakaryâ yahyâ - ibn abi-muhammad - ibn abî-hafs. Rev. in square: al-khalîfa abû - muhammad abd - al-mumin ibn alî / amîr al-muminîn, in marginal segments: walâhukum - alâhu wâhid - lâ ilâha illâ huwa - ar-rahmân ar-rahîm. Hazard - 2.34 g. GOLD Very rare Very fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; diverse
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; misc
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Lot 442
Abû Zakaryâ Yahyâ ibn 'Abd al-Wâhid, 627-647 H/1230-1249 AD, third phase with his own name only, 640-647 H/1242-1249 AD. Dinar no date and no indication of the mint. Hazard 551 Lavoix II 938 2.36 g. GOLD Good very fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; diverse
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; misc
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Lot 443
Abû 'Abdallâh Muhammad ibn Yahya, 647-675 H/1249-1277 AD, 1st phase as amîr 647-650 H./1249-1253 AD. Dinar no date, Bijâya (Bougie/Algeria), all legends in Naskh. Hazard 558 2.36 g. GOLD Rare Good very fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; diverse
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; misc
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Lot 444
Abû 'Abdallâh Muhammad ibn Yahya, 647-675 H/1249-1277 AD, second phase with the title amîr al-mu'minîn, 650-675 H/1253-1. Dinar no date, mint not indicated, all legends in typical Hafsid Kûfî. Hazard 566 2.36 g. GOLD Slightly crimped, about extremely fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; diverse
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; misc
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Lot 445
Abû-Yahyâ Abû-Bakr ibn Yahyâ, 710-747 H./1310-1346 AD. Double dinar (dobla) no date and mint. Hazard 588 4.60 g. GOLD Crimped, very fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; diverse
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; misc
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Lot 446
Abû-Yahyâ Zakaryâ I ibn Ahmad, 711-717 H./1311-1318 AD. Double dinar (dobla) no date and mint. Album 509 Hazard 592 4.70 g. GOLD Very rare Traces of bending, very fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; diverse
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; misc
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Lot 447
Abû-'Amr 'Uthmân ibn Muhammad, 839-893 H/1435-1488 AD. Double dinar (dobla) no date, Tarablus tâbi (or bâligh). Album 513 Hazard - al-Mahdi, XII. Internationaler Numismati p. 1263, fig. 3 4.26 g. GOLD Very fine
Ex Münz Zentrum auction 105, 1998, lot 972.
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; diverse
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; misc
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Lot 448
Abû-'Amr 'Uthmân ibn Muhammad, 839-893 H/1435-1488 AD. Double dinar (dobla) no date, Tarablus tâbi (or bâligh). A second specimen. Relatively broad flan with more than half of the marginal segments readable, probably characteristic for earlier decades of the reign.
. Album 513 Hazard - al-Mahdi, XII. Internationaler Numismati p. 1263, fig. 3 4.71 g. GOLD Very fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; diverse
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; misc
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Lot 449
Abû-'Amr 'Uthmân ibn Muhammad, 839-893 H/1435-1488 AD. Double dinar (dobla) no date, Tarablus (without the additional word tâbi or bâligh following the mint name. As above, relatively full strike on a smaller flan, typical for the end of the reign. 4.71 g. GOLD Very crude style, very fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; diverse
; ISLAMIC COINS; HAFSIDS; misc
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ISLAMIC COINS | Marinids | misc

Lot 450
Abû-Yahyâ Abû-Bakr ibn 'Abd al-haqq, 642-656 H./1244-1258 AD. Double dinar (dobla) no date, mint not indicated, with a large floral ornament in rev. centre. Hazard 690 Mitchiner 453 4.64 g. GOLD Elaborate Naskh calligraphy About extremely fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; MARINIDS; diverse
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Hans Dieter Kind, Gold Coins of Medieval Morocco, in Cornelius/Jarnaz/Lehmann, Geology and Culture of Morocco, Tripolis 1987, p. 133-141, no. 17 (this coin).
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ISLAMIC COINS | Tulunids | misc

Lot 451
Khumârawayh ibn Ahmad, 270-282 H./884-896 AD. Dinar 280 H, Misr. Bernardi - Grabar 61 Kazan 409 4.08 g. GOLD Extremely fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; TULUNIDS; diverse
; ISLAMIC COINS; TULUNIDS; misc
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ISLAMIC COINS | Fatimid Revolution | misc

Lot 452
Abû 'Abd-allâh ash-Shî'î, missionary for the Mahdi in Ifrîqiya 296-297H/909-911 AD. Dinar 296 H, al-Qayrawân, with the phrase al-hamdu lillâh / rabbu l-âlamîn (praise to Allah, the lord of the worlds), above and below the reverse field. Nicol 2 4.17 g. GOLD Extremely rare Very fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; FATIMID REVOLUTION; diverse
; ISLAMIC COINS; FATIMID REVOLUTION; misc


In its initial phase the Fatimid caliphate followed a model which was widespread in the Alid family and its preparations to return to power in a terminal state of God. The takeover of a previous state would be organized by a missionary (dâî) while the expected Mahdî could remain in a well protected position in secret. Abû-Muslims preparation of the Abbasid takeover in 132 H./750 AD was a successful case for the Abbasids, although the theological disagreements between the dâî and the caliph soon led to the dâî being murdered. During the second century H. a group of Muslims who regarded the member of the Alid family Muhammad ibn Ismâîl ibn Jafar as-Sâdiq as their imam began to understand the Qurân in terms of an inner meaning, instead of a superficial understanding. They formed a mission centred in Salamiya and sent out missionaries to develop centres in Askar Mukram/Khuzistan and in Taliqan/Daylam, to which a further mission in the Yaman and in Sind followed. Ibn Haushab, the great dâî of the Yaman sent in 279 H./893 AD Abû Abd-allâ ash-Shîî to Mecca, where this man was able to win the confidence of a group of Berber pilgrims from the tribe of Kutama in the area of Qusantina (Constantine/Algeria).
Ash-Shîî followed the tribesmen to their homeland and as a dâî he gained followers and influence there among the rural Berber population. In 289 H./902 AD a first occupation of a town Mîla, brought him into an open conflict with the Aghlabid government. In the same year the identity of Abd-allâh al-Mahdî in Salamîya/Syria had become public and the Mahdi fled first to ar-Ramla and then to Egypt and the Maghrib, while his bedouin supporters took much of Central Syria and even struck the first dirhams for the Mahdi in Hims before their rebellion was ended by the Abbasid government. al-Mahdi was brought safely to Sijilmâsa, where he arrived in 292 H./905 AD.
In the meantime Abû Abd-allâh ash-Shîî had won over the support of the majority within the Kutâma tribe. Using a situation of internal strife in the Aghlabid domination after the death of Abd-allâh IIin 290 H, ash-Shîî could take over larger centres in the West like Tubna (the former al-Abbâsîya) and he managed to be accepted by the civic population implementing a more friendly taxation practice than the Aghlabid one. The counter attack of the new Aghlabid Ziyâdat-allâh failed and instead in 294 H. Bâghâyâ, the stronghold in the Aures was handed over to ash-Shîî. The Aghlabid tried to buy new militias and to fortify Kairouan, but when it came to confrontations the towns could not be defended as the defenders handed their towns over to the Kutama berbers.
Finally in 295 and 296 H. (908/909 AD) while the Aghlabid government had expected an attack from the North, the dâî progressed in the South. Towards the end of the winter 908/9 ash-Shîî could bring together about
200.000 fighters and marched eastwards and on 20 Jumâdâ II 296 H./18 March 909 the Aghlabid prince Ibrâhîm engaged the Berbers of ash-Shîî in a major battle near al-Aribus, but was ultimately beaten and the auxiliaries of the Aghlabids deserted to their homelands, while the prince retired to Kairouan his father and parts of the court had already chosen flight to Egypt as soon as they heard of the result of the battle.
When Ibrahim arrived the notables of Kairouan rejected his pleas to continue the fight. Instead they sent a delegation to offer submission to ash-Sîî, meeting him on 25 March/1 Rajab 296 H. and escorting him on the same day into the former residence of the Aghlabids, ar-Raqqâda. He took his residence there and began cautiously to consolidate the rule of the dâîs, without provocations against the old ruling class of Mâlikite orthodox muslims, but trying to let them think about the role of the family of the prophet to win acceptance and familiarize with the new kind of Islam. For months the Mahdî himself remained in Sijilmâsa in permanent correspondance with Abû Abd-allh ash-Shîi. He was not yet mentioned in public prayers and consequently not in the coinage. This policy is also reflected by the first of the two types of coinage which were issued during the nine months under the rule of ash-Shîî. This first type which is characterized by the phrase al-hamdu lillâ, rabbu l-alamîn (praise to Allâh, the lord of the worlds) could not possibly meet any resistance of any muslim, while during the second phase this phrase was replaced by balaghat hujjatu llâh, tufarriqa adâ allâh (the guaranty of god has arrived and the enemies of Allâh were scattered). Later on these anonymous coins became known by the name of sayyidî.
The period of striking these coins was short as envoys of the deposed Aghlabid amir were able to inform the Midrarid lord of Sijilmâsa about the identity of the Mahdi, who seemed to be so far a politically neutral merchant from the East, who lived under a second name in friendship with the amir. The situation became critical so that ash-Shîî left his brother in Kairouan and moved himself with the Kutama army to the West to bring the Mahdi and his son al-Qâim eastwards to Ifrîqiya. When the army swore allegiance to the Mahdi in Sijilmâsa on 24 Dhû l-qada 296 H./25th August 909 the government of ash-Shîîs brother in Kairouan had no notice of the new caliphate for months. The change of minting to the name of the new ruler took place in Kairouan only on Friday 17 Rabî II 297 H./5 January 910 as al-Mahdi himself entered ar-Raqqâda. However soon after the triumphal inauguration suspicions were discussed that the Mahdi did not totally conform with the expectations of a person of a uniquely pure character and supernatural abilities as predicted by Abû Abd-allâh ash-Shîî and a severe crisis arose between the Mahdî and his Kutâma supporters with ash-Shîî, which was solved by the Mahdî with simple force by having the disappointed killed in summer 910 H/end of 297 H. Nevertheless ash-Shîî was bemourned by the Mahdi and memorized with high esteem throughout the Fatimid caliphate.
The coins of Abû Abd-allâh ash-Shîî are remarkably rare today, although they were noted already by such late medieval Arabic historians interested in monetary history like al-Maqrîzî. Norman D.
Nicol was able to list no less than eight mint-date-denomination units, of which six could be traced only in a single specimen, although for some of the silver coin types second specimens have appeared since publication. Only the dinars from al-Qairawân
(Kairouan) of 296 H. of the first type with three specimens and of 297 H. of the second type with six specimens are somewhat more common.
If our information after a brief survey is correct the last time a 296 H. dinar was offered in sale was with Hirsch of Munich in 1958, while a 297 H. dinar appeared in a Spink, Zurich sale in 1987. There may exist one or the other further specimen, one according to hearsay knowledge in a German private collection and one might expect one at least in the East of the Arabian peninsula, but none positively known to the present cataloguer. In any event the rarity, especially of the first type dinars, needs no comment.
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ISLAMIC COINS | Fatimids | misc

Lot 453
'Ubayd-allâh al-Mahdî billâh, 297-322 H/910-934 AD. Dinar 299 H, al-Qayrawân (Kairouan). Kazan cf. 418 (297 H) Nicol XX 4.19 g. GOLD Early style, Very rare Very fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; FATIMIDS; diverse
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Lot 454
'Ubayd-allâh al-Mahdî billâh, 297-322 H/910-934 AD. Dinar 307 H, al-Qayrawân (Kairouan). Kazan cf. 420 (3006 H) Nicol 35 4.20 g. GOLD Rare Very fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; FATIMIDS; diverse
; ISLAMIC COINS; FATIMIDS; misc
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Lot 455
'Ubayd-allâh al-Mahdî billâh, 297-322 H/910-934 AD. Dinar 311 H, al-Mahdîya, double circle around obv. field and two dots below rev. field, beginning of mint/date formula at 10 oclock. Nicol 56 var. (but compare his illustration 58 with double circles on both sides and a date read as 314 H 4.18 g. GOLD Very rare variety Very fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; FATIMIDS; diverse
; ISLAMIC COINS; FATIMIDS; misc
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Lot 456
'Ubayd-allâh al-Mahdî billâh, 297-322 H/910-934 AD. Dinar 312 H (date thantayn ashara wa thalathmia), al-Mahdîya. double circle around obv. field and two dots below rev. field, beginning of mint/date formula at 10 oclock. Nicol 60 the illustrated BM coin from the same rev. die on which Nicol read the date as 316 4.18 g. GOLD Very rare Clear and very fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; FATIMIDS; diverse
; ISLAMIC COINS; FATIMIDS; misc
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Lot 457
'Ubayd-allâh al-Mahdî billâh, 297-322 H/910-934 AD. Dinar 318 H, al-Mahdîya. Nicol 60 the illustrated BM coin from the same rev. die on which Nicol read the date as 316 4.18 g. GOLD Clear strike Very fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; FATIMIDS; diverse
; ISLAMIC COINS; FATIMIDS; misc
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Lot 458
'Ubayd-allâh al-Mahdî billâh, 297-322 H/910-934 AD. Dinar 319 H, al-Mahdîya. Nicol 63 4.19 g. GOLD Good very fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; FATIMIDS; diverse
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Lot 459
'Ubayd-allâh al-Mahdî billâh, 297-322 H/910-934 AD. Quarter dinar 305 H, no mint. Nicol 58 a 1.05 g. GOLD Even strike on a relatively large flan to make the marginal legens fully legible, Rare date Good very fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; FATIMIDS; diverse
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Lot 460
'Ubayd-allâh al-Mahdî billâh, 297-322 H/910-934 AD. Quarter dinar 305 H, no mint, a second specimen from the same pair of dies, the flan minimally smaller, but date legible. Nicol 58 a 1.05 g. GOLD Extremely fine
; ISLAMIC COINS; FATIMIDS; diverse
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